These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. “alternative” families from divorce, cohabitation, interracial relationships, and adoption, the nuclear family remains the form of family institution that accrues various economic, legal, and emotional benefits .By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy. Implicit in this normative family structure are same-race and separate sex partnerships rooted in “pseudo”-biological expectations of childbearing.This gendered educational phenomenon is therefore also racialized.As this college gender gap continues to grow, it is imperative to discover to what extent this pattern in education is filtering into family formation decisions.For example, married couples earn a refundable tax credit for having children, gay rights activism has allocated extensive resources to same-sex marriage over challenging the normativity of marriage or other issues affecting LGBTQIA (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, Intersex, and Asexual) groups, and married undocumented immigrant couples are more likely to be granted family reunification than unmarried couples. disproportionately allocates rights and privileges to normative families over others, constructing the very notion of “the family” through the process. women are accessing higher education and professional work at unprecedented rates.
Those who opt out of or cannot achieve a marital union and biological childbearing not only face a loss of material benefits, but also the social benefits of normative family formation.However, Latinas and Black women diverge in other ways.